Temple
University Architectural Program
ARCH
251 Structural Analysis for Architects (Section 001 and 002)
Prerequisite:
Mathematics C076 and Physics C084
Fall 2004: 8/31/0412/7/04
Section 001  Time: T & Th, 8:40  10:00 AM
Engineering and Architectural Building, Room 716
Section
002  Time: T & Th, 10:10  11:30 AM
Engineering
and Architectural Building, Room 716
Course
hours: 3 credit hours fulfilling architecture core curriculumrequired course.
Professor:
Joseph Michael Kelly
Qualifications:
BET, PD, MSc, RA, NCARB, CEng, MCIBSE
Contact
information: Voice: 8642753395, Email: jmkelly@temple.edu
Information
about the professor and course: http://www.jmkelly.net
Office
hours: Room 909. By appointment, 2:30 to 5:30 on Tuesdays.
Architecture
Department Telephone: 2152048813
The
primary objective of this course is to provide architectural students with the
essential skills to perform structural analysis of buildings. Students
satisfying the course requirements will be able to:
1.
Analyze
forces and determine reactions.
2.
Calculate
forces generated in elements of a structure.
3.
Locate
critical points in a structure for internal loads and stresses.
4.
Locate
and determine center of gravity and moment of inertia.
5.
Develop
shear and moment diagrams.
6.
Calculate
strain in structural members.
7.
Analyze
and design columns.
8.
Analyze
and design steel connections.
9.
Choose
appropriate structural materials and framing system.
10.
Understand
the relationship between loads, force, stress and strains.
11.
Follow
the load path through a structural frame and determine whether the frame is
stable.
This course develops an
understanding about the concept of force equilibrium. Force equilibrium
represents one of the most basic yet powerful concepts in the field of
structures for architects, and is the basis for the understanding of structural
behavior. At the completion of this course, the student should have a sound
understanding of this concept and be able to utilize it in analyzing statically
determinate force systems. Emphasis is on force analysis involving external
load conditions on a structural system. A primary objective of part two of the
section in strength of materials is to develop a working relationship between
applied loads on a nonrigid body and the resulting internal forces and
deformations induced in the body. Strength of materials is concerned with the
properties of various structural materials (wood, steel, and concrete) in
resisting applied forces. Upon completion of this section students should be
able to evaluate the appropriate interplay of stresses, section properties,
material strength, and deformation based on an analysis of the load and support
conditions present on a structural member.
COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course is a lecture class that focuses on
structural analysis for architects. Students will learn to efficiently
organize, coordinate and communicate information in order to convey data
necessary for structural analysis. Incorporated is an applied research
project and field sketches related to structural design and detailing.
Students will gain exposure to the essence of
structural design. The following subject content will be addressed.
Loading determination and evaluation.
Resolution and equilibrium of force systems. Truss analysis. Centroids, moment of inertia, and shear and bending
moment diagrams. Basic beam, column and
system design.
Students are expected to
attend class regularly and punctually. An attendance sheet will be passed
at each class meeting. All students must attend all scheduled field
trips. Absences will be excused only by 1) family emergency, 2)
documented medical stay, or 3) approved college function. Note: there will be a
full grade deducted from your final course grade if more than three unexcused
absences occur. If you are late to class it will be your responsibility to sign
the class roll and pick up assignment sheets.
Three "lates" to class will equate to one absence. In the event that a student misses a class,
the student is responsible for all material covered in the class. (See www or
classmates for handouts).
a. Purpose:
To measure and record your comprehension of the issues presented by the
professor or the project; to measure and record the student's progress in
mastering the manual and intellectual skills necessary for the practice of
structural analysis; to measure and record the effectiveness of the teaching
method (course or project calculations and its administration); to inform you
about your strengths, weaknesses, and progress.
b. You
are evaluated on your comprehension of the subject matter taught in this class.
c. Grades
will be available to you upon request in a reasonable time following each
exercise and/or exam. Grades will not be posted. It is your
responsibility to request information on your grade assessment from the
professor.
d. Midterm and final grades will be in accordance with Temple
University's policy and timetable.
e. An
interim review will be conducted with each student dropping below a “C” average
with the dual purpose of undertaking a student and faculty evaluation.
The professor will meet privately with you following the issuance of midterm
grades to discuss your progress and to provide an assessment of your
performance to date, what is expected of you for the remainder of the term, and
to provide you with an opportunity to assess your own development in the
course. You are encouraged to request conferences with the faculty to
discuss your progress at anytime during the course of study.
f. Grading is based on your performance in the
class relative to the results of test, homework, final project, attendance and
attitude. The professor is charged with evaluating your work based on and
utilizing his best judgment of your performance and the quality of the work.
Homework will be evaluated for clarity, accuracy, and presentation quality. The
use of quantitative reasoning and effective data summary will be particularly
emphasized.
g. Final grades will be posted by Temple
registrar and/or architectural department.
A. Excellent.
Indicates work of a very high character, the highest grade given.
B. Good. Indicates
work that is definitely above average, though not of the highest quality.
C. Fair.
Indicates work of average or medium character.
D. Pass. Indicates work below average or
medium character.
F. Fail.
Indicates that the student knows so little of the subject that the course must
be repeated in order that credit may be received.
I. Incomplete
grades ("I") will only be issued for extreme hardship only in
accordance with Temple University policy.
+
or – will may be utilized as + being the highest mark and – being lowest mark
following a letter grade.
COURSE
EVALUATION GRADES
1. Homework/quizzes 25%
As
Per Temple University Grading Policy
2. Test #1 25%
3. Test #2 25%
4. Research Project 25%
5.
Attendance/Attitude  10% of grade
6. Final
Exam  25 % of grade, Pass or
Fail, Student must make 70% or higher on grade to pass.
TOTAL 100%
NOTE:
All students may be required to submit work for NAAB
visitation. These will be used during the accreditation process next year. You will receive your final grade upon the
receipt this information. If you do not turn in this on the specified
date at the end of the semester, you may receive an automatic grade reduction
in the course.
1.
Students
are to prepare weekly homework as stated in the course outline. Homework
problems are assigned for each class meeting. 8 or more homework submittals will
be arbitrary collected for grading on the due date as quizzes. All work is to
be handed in at the time designated. All homework is to be handed in on the
next class meeting following the assignment.
Late homework collected for grades will NOT be accepted and you will
receive an "F". The lowest homework/quiz grade will be dropped. A
missed homework is automatically the one that is dropped. Homework collected as a grade is due by the
beginning of class. Do not email
homework to the professor. The homework assignments will be submitted in the
form of professional architectural engineering documents on grid paper. Homework must be worked showing all
calculations in writing (pencil). Homework
must strictly follow the homework format provided. The required computer software
will enhance your ability to understand the material and check your work for
the correct answers. The use of the
software is beyond the scope of this course and will not be taught in the
class. Download the software and
utilize it throughout the course where possible.
2.
Work
that is not neat and clearly legible will be marked down and is subject to not
being accepted. Neatness implies accuracy.
3.
All
homework, quizzes, test and/or exams are open book.
4.
Two
comprehensive tests will be given. The
first test will cover statics and the second test will cover strength of
materials. The material on both exams will be taken from the required text and
lectures.
5.
The research project will be to provide a structural appraisal report
on a historical building. Your submission should be generously supported by annotated sketches
and calculations. It should be 3000 words in length, excluding appendices. As
architects you should be taking a leading role in sustainable design, green
architecture and building conservation.
We often see beauty in abandon structures that others see as eyesores.
In summary, the scope of services includes the following. 1) Visually inspect
the existing building noting damage, deficiencies and overall condition. 2)
Perform analysis of the existing structural system to determine code
compliance. 3) Identify repairs required
to the existing building. 4) Perform analysis of the building for varying
stages of conservation including associated cost estimates. 5) Investigate compliance with ADA
guidelines involving structure. 6)
Determine a new use for the building.
Your report should clearly explain the structural system of the
building, i.e. the way loads and forces are distributed through the building to
the ground. Using the dimensions and likely weights of the materials being
supported, estimate the stress level in one element in each of the following
categories: 1) A wall, whether solid and loadbearing or framed with infill. 2)
A floor, including joists, boards, any ancillary materials. 3) A structural
component in the roof, such as a joint, rafter or purlin. 4) The foundations at
one point where loads reach the ground. Compare the stress level with the
likely loadbearing ability of the element concerned and comment on the
occurrence of any visible deflection, deformation, cracking or settlement,
which might confirm the successful operation (or otherwise) of the structural
system in use. This assignment is primarily about identifying how the building
works as a structure. The research project is to include field sketches
representing elevations, sections, important structural details, connections,
roof framing, ceiling framing, floor framing and foundation layout. Both transverse and longitudinal sections
through the structure should be sketched, etc.
All sketches should be clearly documented to show all necessary load
paths and how loads are transfer from point to point. Your report should include all structural items that concern you
as an architect and suggestions for repair.
You are encouraged to follow both the intuitive and mathematical paths
in your analysis. You will need to make several trips to the site to document
and study the structure. Visit the
library, city or county building permitting office, etc. to obtain the history of the structure and
other related information as required.
Obtain advice from consultants when required (students in landscape
architecture, construction engineering technology, engineering, architecture,
etc.). Fieldwork can be dangerous; do
not take unnecessary chances when documenting the structure. Keep safety in mind at all times and always
work in pairs. Use digital cameras,
levels, transits, lasers, etc. as required.
Use structural terminology that you learn in class when discussing the
project and be prepared to explain that terminology. This is a reallife project, take it seriously and conduct
yourself as an architect when visiting or discussing the project. Be aware of
the difference between analysis and design.
6.
Late submission
of the final project will result in the reduction of a full letter grade or
failure of the course.
1. Standard drafting equipment as
used in previous courses (scale, protractor, etc.).
2. Engineering Paper (green with
grid lines) is to be used for homework and quizzes.
3. Threering binder for homework. The binder with all the homework is to be
handed in at the end of the semester for evaluation your work and final grade.
4. Computer access with Internet
connection, email and web surfing capabilities.
5.
Calculator.
REQUIRED
TEXT (Available through the Campus Bookstore)
1.
Statics
and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction. Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane, 2^{nd}
edition, Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2002, ISBN
0130549703
2.
Understanding
Structures. Fuller Moore, WCB/McGraw Hill, 1999, ISBN 0070432538
1.
Building
Structures, James Ambrose, John Wiley & Sons, 1988, ISBN 0471830941
2.
Why
Building Stand Up, Mario Salvadori, Norton, 1990, ISBN 0393306763
3.
Why
Building Fall Down, Matthys Levy and Mario Salvadori, Norton, 1992, ISBN
039331152X
4.
Applied
Statics and Strength of Materials, Leonard Spiegel and George F. Limbrunner,
Merrill, 1991, ISBN 0675211239
REQUIRED STRUCTURAL SOFTWARE – Free
download
a.
ENERCALC
Engineering Software, Go to http://www.enercalc.com/support/downloads.asp
for free download of demo version.
(purchase not required for evaluation)
http://www.enercalc.com/support/downloads.asp
b.
FastFrame,
Go to http://ENERCALC.COM for free download of
demo version. (purchase not required
for evaluation)
a.
http://nisee.berkeley.edu/ (Earthquake
damage)
b.
http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/tacoma/tacoma.html
(Tacoma Narrows Bridge)
c.
http://www.eas.asu.edu/~ece313/beams/beams.html
(Shear, moment and deflection diagrams)
d.
http://www.mdsolids.com (Shear, moment and deflection diagrams)
e.
http://urban.arch.virginia.edu/arcade/ (Arcade
 Interactive Nonlinear Structural Analysis
and Animation)
f.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wtc/
(World Trade Center)
g.
http://www.greatbuildings.com/ (Great Buildings Online)
h.
http://architecture.about.com/library/blbuildings.htm (Great Buildings and Structures)
i.
http://wwwec.njit.edu/civil/gateway.html
(Tensile Fabric Structures)
j.
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/gsapp/BT/DOMES/domes.html
(Domed Superstadiums)
k.
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/vectors/u3l1a.html
(Vector Review)
1.
The
class is to be handled and conducted in a professional manner. Student attitude and participation are
required if the class is to be passed successfully.
2.
Provide
your email address to the professor by emailing jmkelly@temple.edu
3.
Students
are required to check the web announcement page and their email daily. Posting
on the announcement page or email constitutes official notification.
4.
Selected
solutions may be posted on the web page if time permits.
5.
Please
disable cell phones in class.
6.
Do
not procrastinate in doing the homework problems by starting the day or even
several days before the due date. Start the assignments early and complete all problems
before the DUE DATE. Successful completion of the homework and test are a major
percentage of your grade. I cannot
stress this enough because if you do not work the problems successfully and do
not hand them on due dates you will FAIL this course. The structural portions of the ARE Architectural Registration
Exam are very difficult. Most of the material presented in this class will not
be taught in an architectural office. A
building must have a good and solid foundation capable of supporting the loads
for the life of the structure or the structure will fail. This is your
foundation course in structures, study hard and learn it well. Pier Luigi Nervi said, “In order to
invent a structure and give it exact proportions, one must follow both the intuitive
and mathematical paths”. The main
emphasis in this course will be on the mastery of basic principles, which will
lead to successful solutions to reallife applied structural problems.
Text: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture
and Building Construction 

Class No. 
Date 
Topic 
Chapter – Read all Sections and Work all Homework Problems. Random
Homework Problems will also be assigned for grading. 
1 
8/31 Tues 
Statics Structural
project review 
Section 1.1 1.6 
2 
9/2 Thur 
Forces 
Section
2.1  2.4 Problems
2.1, 2.2, 2.8, 2.12,
2.15, 2.19, 2.20, 2.26, 2.28 and 2.30 
3 
9/7 Tues 
FreeBody
Diagrams 
Section
2.5 Problem
2.35, 2.36 and 2.37 
4 
9/9 Thur 
Particle
Equilibrium 
Section
3.1 Problem
3.1 and 3.3 
5 
9/14 Tues 
Rigid
Body Equilibrium 
Section
3.2 Problem
3.5, 3.7 and 3.10 
6 
9/16 Thur 
Plane
Trusses Method
of Joints 
Section
3.3 Problem
3.12 and 3.15 
7 
9/21 Tues 
Method
of Sections 
Section
3.3 Problem
3.18, and 3.21 
8 
9/23 Thur 
Pinned
frames ThreeHinged
Arches 
Section
3.4 – 3.5 Problem
3.28, 3.29 and 3.30 
9 
9/28 Tues 
Load
Tracing 
Section
4.1 Problem
4.2, 4.4 and 4.7 
10 
9/30 Thur 
Load
Tracing Structural
project review 
Section
4.2 Problem
4.9 and 4.11 
11 
10/5 Tues 
TEST 1 – Statics 
Test
on Chapter 14 
12 
10/7 Thur 
Strength of Materials
Stress/Strain

Section
5.1 Problem
5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7 and 5.9 
13 
10/12 Tues 
Elasticity,
Strength and Deformation Other
Material Properties Thermal
Effects. Statically
Indeterminate 
Section
5.2  5.5 Problem
5.11, 5.15, 5.16 and 5.21 
14 
10/14 Thur 
Center
of Gravity Moment
of Inertia 
Section
6.1 – 6.2 Problem
6.1, 6.3 and 6.4 
15 
10/19 Tues 
Moments of
Inertia of Composite Areas Radius
of Gyration 
Section
6.3 – 6.4 Problem
6.9, 6.10 and 6.11 
16 
10/21 Thur 
Beams,
Loads, Shear, Moment 
Section
7.1  7.3 Problem
7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 
17 
10/26 Tues 
Shear
and Moment Diagrams 
Section
7.4 
18 
10/28 Thur 
Shear
and Moment Diagrams Structural
project review 
Section
7.5 Problem
7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8 and 7.10 
19 
11/2 Tues 
Flexural
Strain 
Section
8.1 
20 
11/4 Thur 
Flexural
(Bending) Stress 
Section
8.2 Problem
8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.9 and 8.10 
21 
11/9 Tues 
Shear
Stress 
Section
8.3 
22 
11/11 Thur 
General
Shear Equation 
Section
8.4 Problem
8.11, 8.13, 8.14 and 8.15 
23 
11/17 Tues 
Beam
Deflection 
Section
8.5 Problems
8.22, 8.23 and 8.24 
24 
11/18 Thur 
Columns 
Section
9.12 Problems
9.1, 9.3, 9.4 and 9.6 
25 
11/23 Tues 
Columns 
Section
9.3 – 9.5 Problems
9.7, 9.12, 9.13, 9.16 and 9.18 

11/25 Thur 
Thanksgiving
Holiday 
No
Class/No work 
26 
11/30 Tues 
Connections Structural
project review 
Section
10.13 Problems
10.1, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9 and 10.12 
27 
Thur 12/2 
TEST 2  Strength of Materials 
Test
on Chapter 5 – 10 All
homework due in book form for final evaluation/grade. 
28 
Tues 12/7 
Last
day of class 
Structural
Project Due. 
Text: Understanding Structures 

Class NO. 
Date 
Topic 
Chapter – Read all Sections 
1 
8/31 Tues 
Part 1 Structural
Theory 
Section
12 
3 
9/7 Tues 
Part
2 Trussed
Systems 
Section
36 
5 
9/14 Tues 
Part
3 Framed
Systems 
Section
79 
7 
9/21 Tues 
Part
4 Funicular
Systems 
Section
1014 
9 
9/28 Tues 
Part
5 Shell
Systems 
Section
1516 
11 
10/5 Tues 
TEST 1  Statics 
Test
Chapter 1  5 
13 
10/12 Tues 
Part
6 System
Synthesis 
Section
1718 
15 
10/19 Tues 
Reference material 
Section
118 
17 
10/26 Tues 
Preliminary
Design Charts 
Appendix
A 
28 
Tues 12/2 
TEST 2  Strength of Materials 
Test
Chapter 6 – Appendix 
EXPLANATION
OF NAAB CRITERIA ADDRESSED
