Temple University Architectural Program

ARCH 251 Structural Analysis for Architects (Section 001 and 002)

Fall Semester 2004


Prerequisite: Mathematics C076 and Physics C084

Fall 2004: 8/31/04-12/7/04

Section 001 - Time: T & Th, 8:40 - 10:00 AM

Engineering and Architectural Building, Room 716

Section 002 - Time: T & Th, 10:10 - 11:30 AM

Engineering and Architectural Building, Room 716

Course hours: 3 credit hours fulfilling architecture core curriculum-required course.


Professor: Joseph Michael Kelly

Qualifications: BET, PD, MSc, RA, NCARB, CEng, MCIBSE

Contact information: Voice: 864-275-3395, Email: jmkelly@temple.edu

Information about the professor and course: http://www.jmkelly.net  

Office hours: Room 909. By appointment, 2:30 to 5:30 on Tuesdays.

Architecture Department Telephone: 215-204-8813



The primary objective of this course is to provide architectural students with the essential skills to perform structural analysis of buildings. Students satisfying the course requirements will be able to:

1.        Analyze forces and determine reactions.

2.        Calculate forces generated in elements of a structure.

3.        Locate critical points in a structure for internal loads and stresses.

4.        Locate and determine center of gravity and moment of inertia.

5.        Develop shear and moment diagrams.

6.        Calculate strain in structural members.

7.        Analyze and design columns.

8.        Analyze and design steel connections.

9.        Choose appropriate structural materials and framing system.

10.     Understand the relationship between loads, force, stress and strains.

11.     Follow the load path through a structural frame and determine whether the frame is stable.


This course develops an understanding about the concept of force equilibrium. Force equilibrium represents one of the most basic yet powerful concepts in the field of structures for architects, and is the basis for the understanding of structural behavior. At the completion of this course, the student should have a sound understanding of this concept and be able to utilize it in analyzing statically determinate force systems. Emphasis is on force analysis involving external load conditions on a structural system. A primary objective of part two of the section in strength of materials is to develop a working relationship between applied loads on a non-rigid body and the resulting internal forces and deformations induced in the body. Strength of materials is concerned with the properties of various structural materials (wood, steel, and concrete) in resisting applied forces. Upon completion of this section students should be able to evaluate the appropriate interplay of stresses, section properties, material strength, and deformation based on an analysis of the load and support conditions present on a structural member.



This course is a lecture class that focuses on structural analysis for architects. Students will learn to efficiently organize, coordinate and communicate information in order to convey data necessary for structural analysis.  Incorporated is an applied research project and field sketches related to structural design and detailing.


Students will gain exposure to the essence of structural design.   The following subject content will be addressed. Loading determination and evaluation.  Resolution and equilibrium of force systems. Truss analysis.  Centroids, moment of inertia, and shear and bending moment diagrams.  Basic beam, column and system design.



Students are expected to attend class regularly and punctually.  An attendance sheet will be passed at each class meeting.   All students must attend all scheduled field trips.  Absences will be excused only by 1) family emergency, 2) documented medical stay, or 3) approved college function. Note: there will be a full grade deducted from your final course grade if more than three unexcused absences occur. If you are late to class it will be your responsibility to sign the class roll and pick up assignment sheets.  Three "lates" to class will equate to one absence.  In the event that a student misses a class, the student is responsible for all material covered in the class. (See www or classmates for handouts). 



a.     Purpose: To measure and record your comprehension of the issues presented by the professor or the project; to measure and record the student's progress in mastering the manual and intellectual skills necessary for the practice of structural analysis; to measure and record the effectiveness of the teaching method (course or project calculations and its administration); to inform you about your strengths, weaknesses, and progress.

b.     You are evaluated on your comprehension of the subject matter taught in this class.

c.     Grades will be available to you upon request in a reasonable time following each exercise and/or exam.  Grades will not be posted.  It is your responsibility to request information on your grade assessment from the professor.

d.      Mid-term and final grades will be in accordance with Temple University's policy and timetable.

e.     An interim review will be conducted with each student dropping below a “C” average with the dual purpose of undertaking a student and faculty evaluation.  The professor will meet privately with you following the issuance of mid-term grades to discuss your progress and to provide an assessment of your performance to date, what is expected of you for the remainder of the term, and to provide you with an opportunity to assess your own development in the course.  You are encouraged to request conferences with the faculty to discuss your progress at anytime during the course of study.

f.      Grading is based on your performance in the class relative to the results of test, homework, final project, attendance and attitude. The professor is charged with evaluating your work based on and utilizing his best judgment of your performance and the quality of the work. Homework will be evaluated for clarity, accuracy, and presentation quality. The use of quantitative reasoning and effective data summary will be particularly emphasized.

g.     Final grades will be posted by Temple registrar and/or architectural department.           



A.    Excellent.  Indicates work of a very high character, the highest grade given.

B.    Good.  Indicates work that is definitely above average, though not of the highest quality.

C.   Fair.  Indicates work of average or medium character.

D.    Pass.  Indicates work below average or medium character.

F.     Fail.  Indicates that the student knows so little of the subject that the course must be repeated in order that credit may be received.

I.      Incomplete grades ("I") will only be issued for extreme hardship only in accordance with Temple University policy.


+ or – will may be utilized as + being the highest mark and – being lowest mark following a letter grade.


COURSE EVALUATION                                                                   GRADES

1.    Homework/quizzes                        25%                                        As Per Temple University Grading Policy

2.    Test #1                                            25%                                       

3.    Test #2                                            25%                                      

4.    Research Project                           25%                                                         

5.    Attendance/Attitude                    - 10% of grade

6.    Final Exam                                      - 25 % of grade, Pass or Fail, Student must make 70% or higher on grade to pass.


TOTAL                                                  100% 



All students may be required to submit work for NAAB visitation. These will be used during the accreditation process next year.  You will receive your final grade upon the receipt this information.  If you do not turn in this on the specified date at the end of the semester, you may receive an automatic grade reduction in the course.  



1.        Students are to prepare weekly homework as stated in the course outline. Homework problems are assigned for each class meeting. 8 or more homework submittals will be arbitrary collected for grading on the due date as quizzes. All work is to be handed in at the time designated. All homework is to be handed in on the next class meeting following the assignment.  Late homework collected for grades will NOT be accepted and you will receive an "F". The lowest homework/quiz grade will be dropped. A missed homework is automatically the one that is dropped.  Homework collected as a grade is due by the beginning of class.  Do not email homework to the professor. The homework assignments will be submitted in the form of professional architectural engineering documents on grid paper.  Homework must be worked showing all calculations in writing (pencil).  Homework must strictly follow the homework format provided. The required computer software will enhance your ability to understand the material and check your work for the correct answers.  The use of the software is beyond the scope of this course and will not be taught in the class.  Download the software and utilize it throughout the course where possible.      

2.        Work that is not neat and clearly legible will be marked down and is subject to not being accepted.  Neatness implies accuracy.

3.        All homework, quizzes, test and/or exams are open book.

4.        Two comprehensive tests will be given.  The first test will cover statics and the second test will cover strength of materials. The material on both exams will be taken from the required text and lectures. 

5.        The research project will be to provide a structural appraisal report on a historical building. Your submission should be generously supported by annotated sketches and calculations. It should be 3000 words in length, excluding appendices. As architects you should be taking a leading role in sustainable design, green architecture and building conservation.  We often see beauty in abandon structures that others see as eyesores. In summary, the scope of services includes the following. 1) Visually inspect the existing building noting damage, deficiencies and overall condition. 2) Perform analysis of the existing structural system to determine code compliance.  3) Identify repairs required to the existing building. 4) Perform analysis of the building for varying stages of conservation including associated cost estimates.  5) Investigate compliance with ADA guidelines involving structure.  6) Determine a new use for the building.  Your report should clearly explain the structural system of the building, i.e. the way loads and forces are distributed through the building to the ground. Using the dimensions and likely weights of the materials being supported, estimate the stress level in one element in each of the following categories: 1) A wall, whether solid and loadbearing or framed with infill. 2) A floor, including joists, boards, any ancillary materials. 3) A structural component in the roof, such as a joint, rafter or purlin. 4) The foundations at one point where loads reach the ground. Compare the stress level with the likely loadbearing ability of the element concerned and comment on the occurrence of any visible deflection, deformation, cracking or settlement, which might confirm the successful operation (or otherwise) of the structural system in use. This assignment is primarily about identifying how the building works as a structure. The research project is to include field sketches representing elevations, sections, important structural details, connections, roof framing, ceiling framing, floor framing and foundation layout.  Both transverse and longitudinal sections through the structure should be sketched, etc.  All sketches should be clearly documented to show all necessary load paths and how loads are transfer from point to point.  Your report should include all structural items that concern you as an architect and suggestions for repair.  You are encouraged to follow both the intuitive and mathematical paths in your analysis. You will need to make several trips to the site to document and study the structure.  Visit the library, city or county building permitting office, etc.  to obtain the history of the structure and other related information as required.  Obtain advice from consultants when required (students in landscape architecture, construction engineering technology, engineering, architecture, etc.).  Fieldwork can be dangerous; do not take unnecessary chances when documenting the structure.  Keep safety in mind at all times and always work in pairs.  Use digital cameras, levels, transits, lasers, etc. as required.  Use structural terminology that you learn in class when discussing the project and be prepared to explain that terminology.  This is a real-life project, take it seriously and conduct yourself as an architect when visiting or discussing the project. Be aware of the difference between analysis and design.

6.        Late submission of the final project will result in the reduction of a full letter grade or failure of the course.



1.   Standard drafting equipment as used in previous courses (scale, protractor, etc.).

2.   Engineering Paper (green with grid lines) is to be used for homework and quizzes.

3.   Three-ring binder for homework.  The binder with all the homework is to be handed in at the end of the semester for evaluation your work and final grade.

4.   Computer access with Internet connection, email and web surfing capabilities.

5.   Calculator.


REQUIRED TEXT (Available through the Campus Bookstore)

1.        Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction.  Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2002, ISBN 0-13-054970-3

2.        Understanding Structures. Fuller Moore, WCB/McGraw Hill, 1999, ISBN 0-07-043253-8



1.        Building Structures, James Ambrose, John Wiley & Sons, 1988, ISBN 0-471-83094-1

2.        Why Building Stand Up, Mario Salvadori, Norton, 1990, ISBN 0-393-30676-3

3.        Why Building Fall Down, Matthys Levy and Mario Salvadori, Norton, 1992, ISBN 0-393-31152-X

4.        Applied Statics and Strength of Materials, Leonard Spiegel and George F. Limbrunner, Merrill, 1991, ISBN 0-675-21123-9



a.        ENERCALC Engineering Software, Go to http://www.enercalc.com/support/downloads.asp for free download of demo version.  (purchase not required for evaluation) http://www.enercalc.com/support/downloads.asp

b.       FastFrame, Go to http://ENERCALC.COM for free download of demo version.  (purchase not required for evaluation)



a.        http://nisee.berkeley.edu/ (Earthquake damage)

b.       http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/tacoma/tacoma.html (Tacoma Narrows Bridge)

c.        http://www.eas.asu.edu/~ece313/beams/beams.html (Shear, moment and deflection diagrams)

d.       http://www.mdsolids.com  (Shear, moment and deflection diagrams)

e.        http://urban.arch.virginia.edu/arcade/ (Arcade - Interactive Non-linear Structural Analysis and Animation)

f.         http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wtc/ (World Trade Center)

g.       http://www.greatbuildings.com/  (Great Buildings Online)

h.       http://architecture.about.com/library/bl-buildings.htm  (Great Buildings and Structures)

i.         http://www-ec.njit.edu/civil/gateway.html (Tensile Fabric Structures)

j.         http://www.columbia.edu/cu/gsapp/BT/DOMES/domes.html (Domed Superstadiums)

k.        http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/vectors/u3l1a.html (Vector Review)



1.        The class is to be handled and conducted in a professional manner.  Student attitude and participation are required if the class is to be passed successfully.

2.        Provide your email address to the professor by emailing jmkelly@temple.edu

3.        Students are required to check the web announcement page and their email daily. Posting on the announcement page or email constitutes official notification.

4.        Selected solutions may be posted on the web page if time permits.

5.        Please disable cell phones in class.

6.        Do not procrastinate in doing the homework problems by starting the day or even several days before the due date. Start the assignments early and complete all problems before the DUE DATE. Successful completion of the homework and test are a major percentage of your grade.  I cannot stress this enough because if you do not work the problems successfully and do not hand them on due dates you will FAIL this course.  The structural portions of the ARE Architectural Registration Exam are very difficult. Most of the material presented in this class will not be taught in an architectural office.  A building must have a good and solid foundation capable of supporting the loads for the life of the structure or the structure will fail. This is your foundation course in structures, study hard and learn it well.  Pier Luigi Nervi said, “In order to invent a structure and give it exact proportions, one must follow both the intuitive and mathematical paths”.  The main emphasis in this course will be on the mastery of basic principles, which will lead to successful solutions to real-life applied structural problems.    




Text: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction

Class No.



Chapter – Read all Sections and Work all Homework Problems. Random Homework Problems will also be assigned for grading.


8/31 Tues


Structural project review

Section 1.1- 1.6


9/2 Thur


Section 2.1 - 2.4

Problems 2.1, 2.2, 2.8,

2.12, 2.15, 2.19, 2.20, 2.26, 2.28 and 2.30


9/7 Tues

Free-Body Diagrams

Section 2.5

Problem 2.35, 2.36 and 2.37


9/9 Thur

Particle Equilibrium

Section 3.1

Problem 3.1 and 3.3


9/14 Tues

Rigid Body Equilibrium

Section 3.2

Problem 3.5, 3.7 and 3.10


9/16 Thur

Plane Trusses

Method of Joints

Section 3.3

Problem 3.12 and 3.15


9/21 Tues

Method of Sections

Section 3.3

Problem 3.18, and 3.21



9/23 Thur

Pinned frames

Three-Hinged Arches

Section 3.4 – 3.5

Problem 3.28, 3.29 and 3.30


9/28 Tues

Load Tracing


Section 4.1

Problem 4.2, 4.4 and



9/30 Thur

Load Tracing

Structural project review

Section 4.2

Problem 4.9 and 4.11


10/5 Tues

TEST 1 – Statics

Test on Chapter 1-4


10/7 Thur

Strength of Materials


Section 5.1

Problem 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7 and 5.9


10/12 Tues

Elasticity, Strength and Deformation

Other Material Properties

Thermal Effects.

Statically Indeterminate

Section 5.2 - 5.5

Problem 5.11, 5.15, 5.16 and 5.21


10/14 Thur

Center of Gravity

Moment of Inertia

Section 6.1 – 6.2

Problem 6.1, 6.3 and 6.4 



10/19 Tues

Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas    Radius of Gyration

Section 6.3 – 6.4

Problem 6.9, 6.10 and 6.11


10/21 Thur

Beams, Loads, Shear, Moment


Section 7.1 - 7.3

Problem 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4


10/26 Tues

Shear and Moment Diagrams

Section 7.4



10/28 Thur

Shear and Moment Diagrams

Structural project review

Section 7.5

Problem 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8 and 7.10


11/2 Tues

Flexural Strain

Section 8.1



11/4 Thur

Flexural (Bending) Stress

Section 8.2

Problem 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.9 and 8.10


11/9 Tues

Shear Stress

Section 8.3


11/11 Thur

General Shear Equation

Section 8.4

Problem 8.11, 8.13, 8.14 and 8.15


11/17 Tues

Beam Deflection

Section 8.5

Problems 8.22, 8.23 and 8.24


11/18 Thur


Section 9.1-2

Problems 9.1, 9.3, 9.4 and 9.6


11/23 Tues


Section 9.3 – 9.5

Problems 9.7, 9.12, 9.13, 9.16 and 9.18


11/25 Thur

Thanksgiving Holiday

No Class/No work


11/30 Tues


Structural project review

Section 10.1-3

Problems 10.1, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9 and 10.12


Thur 12/2

TEST 2 - Strength of Materials


Test on Chapter 5 – 10

All homework due in book form for final evaluation/grade.


Tues 12/7

Last day of class

Structural Project Due.  


Text: Understanding Structures

Class NO.



Chapter – Read all Sections


8/31 Tues

Part 1

Structural Theory

Section 1-2


9/7 Tues

Part 2

Trussed Systems

Section 3-6


9/14 Tues

Part 3

Framed Systems

Section 7-9


9/21 Tues

Part 4

Funicular Systems

Section 10-14


9/28 Tues

Part 5

Shell Systems

Section 15-16


10/5 Tues

TEST 1 - Statics

Test Chapter 1 - 5


10/12 Tues

Part 6

System Synthesis

Section 17-18


10/19 Tues

Reference material

Section 1-18


10/26 Tues

Preliminary Design Charts

Appendix A


Tues 12/2

TEST 2 - Strength of Materials

Test Chapter 6 – Appendix


Each of the 37 NAAB criteria addressed by the courses in the Architecture Program curriculum is described below.


Verbal and Writing Skills
Ability to speak and write effectively on subject matter contained in the professional curriculum.


Graphic Skills
Ability to employ appropriate representational media, including computer technology, to convey essential formal elements at each stage of the programming and design process.


Research Skills
Ability to employ basic methods of data collection and analysis to inform all aspects of the programming and design process.


Critical Thinking Skills
Ability to make a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of a building, building complex, or urban space.


Fundamental Design Skills
Ability to apply basic organizational, spatial, structural, and constructional principles to the conception and development of interior and exterior spaces, building elements, and components.


Collaborative Skills
Ability to identify and assume divergent roles that maximize individual talents, and to cooperate with other students when working as members of a design team and in other settings.


Human Behavior
Awareness of the theories and methods of inquiry that seek to clarify the relationships between human behavior and the physical environment.


Human Diversity
Awareness of the diversity of needs, values, behavioral norms, and social and spatial patterns that characterize different cultures, and the implications of this diversity for the societal roles and responsibilities of architects.


Use of Precedents
Ability to provide a coherent rationale for the programmatic and formal precedents employed in the conceptualization and development of architecture and urban design projects.


Western Traditions
Understanding of the Western Architectural canons and traditions in architecture, landscape, and urban design, as well as the climatic, technological, socioeconomic, and other cultural factors that have shaped and sustained them.


Non-Western Traditions
Awareness of the parallel and divergent canons and traditions of architecture and urban design in the non-Western world.


National and Regional Traditions
Understanding of the national traditions and the local regional heritage I architecture, landscape, and urban design including vernacular traditions.


Environmental Conservation
Understanding of the basic principles of ecology and architects’ responsibilities with respect to environmental and resource conservation in architecture and urban design.


Ability to respond to natural and building to accommodate individuals with varying physical abilities.


Site Conditions
Ability to respond to natural and built site characteristics in the development of program and design of a project.


Formal Ordering Systems
Understanding of the fundamentals of visual perception and the principles and systems of order that inform two-and three-dimensional design, Architectural composition, an urban design.


Structural Systems
Understanding of the principles of structural behavior in withstanding gravity and lateral forces, and the evolution, range, and appropriate applications of contemporary structural systems.


Environmental Systems
Understanding of the basic principles that inform the design of environmental systems, including acoustics, lighting and climate modification systems, and energy use.


Life-Safety Systems
Understanding of the basic principles that inform the design and selection of life-safety systems in buildings and their subsystems.


Building Envelope Systems
Understanding of the Basic Principles that inform the design of building envelope systems.


Building Service Systems
Understanding of the basic principles that inform the design of building service systems, including plumbing, electrical, vertical transportation, communication, security, and fire protection systems.


Building Systems Integration
Ability to assess, select, and integrate structural systems, environmental systems, life-safety systems, building envelope systems, and building service systems into building design.


Legal Responsibilities
Understanding of architects’ legal responsibilities with respect to public health, safety, and welfare; property rights; zoning and subdivision ordinances; building codes; accessibility and other factor affecting building design, construction, and architecture practice.


Building Code Compliance
Understanding of the codes, regulations, and standards applicable to a given site and building design, including heights and areas, allowable constructions, types, separation requirements, occupancy requirements, means of egress, fire protection, and structure.


Building Materials and Assemblies
Understanding of the principles, conventions, standards, applications, and restrictions pertaining to the manufacture and use of construction materials, components, and assemblies.


Building Economics and Cost Control
Awareness of the Fundamentals of development financing, building economics, and construction cost control within the framework of a design project.


Detailed Design Development
Ability to assess, select, configure, and detail as an integral part of the design appropriate combinations of building materials, components, and assemblies to satisfy the requirements of building programs.


Technical Documentation
Ability to make technically precise descriptions and documentation of a proposed design for purposes of review and construction.


Comprehensive Design
Ability to produce an architecture project informed by a comprehensive program, from schematic design through the detailed development of programmatic spaces, structural and environmental systems, life-safety provisions, wall sections, and building assemblies, as may be appropriate; and to assess the completed project with respect to the program’s design criteria.


Program Preparation
Ability to assemble a comprehensive program for an architecture project, including an assessment of client and user needs, a critical review of appropriate precedents, and inventory of space and equipment requirements, and analysis of site conditions, a review of the relevant laws and standards and an assessment of their implications for the project, and a definition of site selection and design assessment criteria.


The Legal Context of Architecture Practice
Awareness of the evolving legal context within which architects practice, and of the laws pertaining to professional registration, professional service contracts, and the formation of design firms and related legal entities.


Practice Organization and Management
Awareness of the basic principles of office organization, business planning, marketing, negotiation, financial management, and leadership, as they apply to the practice of architecture.


Contracts and Documentation
Awareness of the different methods of project delivery, the corresponding forms of service contracts, and the types of documentation required to render competent and responsible professional service.


Professional Internship
Understanding of the role of internship in professional development, and the reciprocal rights and responsibilities of interns and employers.


Architect’s Leadership Roles
Awareness of architects’ leadership roles from project inception, design, and design development to contract administration, including the selection and coordination of allied disciplines, post-occupancy evaluation, and facility management.


The Context of Architecture
Understanding of the shifts which occur and have occurred in the social, political, technological, ecological, and economic factors that shape the practice of architecture.


Ethics and Professional Judgment
Awareness of the ethical issues involved in the formation of professional judgments in architecture design and practice.